There are a handful of trials that are labelled the “trial of the century,” from the assassination of President Kennedy to the trial of O.J. Simpson. Several of these trials ended with more questions than answers - from motive to cover-ups. The following blog post looks at some of the most infamous crimes in America and the possibility of a different answer.
After a few blog posts about war and fashion, we’re taking a break to look at mythology. Arguably, the most famous mythological beast is a dragon. Both Europe and Asia have their own types of dragon developed independently from one another. In English, both share the name dragon, though they are somewhat different creatures. Dragon means “serpent of huge size,” which is a fair assessment of both creatures.
Both dragons are reptilian, covered in scales. Most types of dragon from both regions have four legs with claws and a tail. The European dragon more closely resembles a lizard or crocodile while the body of the Asian dragon is much more serpentine in nature, with winding, slender bodies. The European dragon may have horns or spines on its head, down its back, and on its tail. The Asian dragon, specifically referring to the Chinese dragon, is said to be a chimeric animal comprised of 9 different features from other animals:
Antlers of a deer
Head of a camel
Eyes of a demon
Neck of a snake
Belly of a clam
Scales of a carp
Claws of an eagle
Paws of a tiger
Ears of an ox
Both types of dragons can fly, but only European dragons have wings, which resemble bat wings. (There are a few rare Asian dragons that do have wings.) Asiatic dragons fly magically through the clouds.
Dragons are powerful, dangerous, and intelligent creatures no matter where one goes. Their ability to communicate with humans, however, varies. In some stories, both in Europe and Asia, they can speak with humans. In China, dragons are considered one part of a harmonious whole - the bright, masculine, solar yang to the fenghuang’s (phoenix) dark, feminine, lunar yin. European dragons are almost always at odds with people - stealing their wealth, killing their livestock, or burning down their homes.
Asiatic dragons are more associated with water, wind, and rain. They are said to reside at the bottom of bodies of water or in the sky, whereas European dragons usually have lairs in caves or castles. European dragons can breathe fire, but most Asian dragons can’t. If a dragon in Asian mythology spouts fire, it is generally seen as a malevolent being sent from heaven as punishment.
Benevolence or Malevolence
European dragons are mostly featured as evil creatures, greedily hoarding gold, breathing fire on innocents, leaving a path of destruction in its wake. Asian dragons, however, are benevolent creatures, bringing good luck and prosperity wherever it goes. Both are powerful creatures, but Asian dragons are seen as a figure of authority, often relating to or representing the emperor. Emperors would use the Chinese character for “dragon” to represent items that belong to the emperor. For example, the emperor’s seat or the emperor’s bed would actually read, in English, dragon’s seat or dragon’s bed. Asian dragons are to be respected. Chinese people claim to be descendants of dragons. They are also represented in the Chinese zodiac for certain lunar years. (If you were born in 1928, 1940, 1952, 1964, 1976, 1988, or 2000, your zodiac sign is the dragon and is characterized by the traits: confident, intelligent, and enthusiastic.) Birth rates spike during Years of the Dragon. European dragons are to be feared and defeated by great knights or hobbits with rings of invisibility.
In recent years, a different interpretation of European dragons has entered into media with the possibility of benevolent or helpful European dragons from Daenerys’ dragons in Game of Thrones to the dragon in Shrek to the Luckdragon in The Neverending Story.
After the election of Abraham Lincoln in November of 1860, the discontented South began to draw up plans of secession. South Carolina, followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas, seceded from the Union and formed the Confederated States of America in February of 1861.
Tennessean voters, under mounting pressure to choose an allegiance, were asked whether to hold a convention to discuss the possibility of secession, to which they responded with a resounding “no convention.” However, after a campaign promoting the idea of secession, Tennesseean politicians forced a secession vote through on June 1, 1861.
This week, we’ll examine the next 50 years of Western fashion. If you haven’t read the previous blog post, you can read it here.
The 1900s was the first full decade of the Progressive Era. A number of issues affected people of this time, including: industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and political corruption. It was also a time of innovation. The Wright Brothers made their first flight and more attention was turned to women’s suffrage. Prohibition (of alcohol) also became a popular ideology.
Skirts became tighter around the hips with a flare towards the bottom of the dress. Trains were popular in the early part of the decade, but the hemlines would later rise to ankle-length, signalling the changes that would come in the following decades. The S-shape corsets were still en vogue and to create a pouter-pigeon shape, blouses with a puffy, frilled front were popular. The ideal beauty was the Gibson Girl. To achieve this look, women would pad and use false hair piled high on their head.
Bowler hats were no longer confined to working class men. Jackets became narrow with smaller lapels. Three-piece suits no longer had to match - they would sometimes have contrasting pieces. The blazer appeared at this time, worn mostly for sports and casual activities. Modern ties also gained popularity beginning in this decade.
The world began to change in the 1910s. The beginning of the decade saw one of the worst maritime disasters in history: the sinking of the RMS Titanic. The decade also saw the rebirth of the KKK, the institution of Prohibition, increased campaigning of women’s suffrage, the first major Red Scare, and World War I.
Social changes began to be reflected in women’s fashion. Hemlines get higher, women pop their hair, corsets begin to fall out of favor. During this time, bold women also begin to wear pants. Harem pants, made popular with the rise of Orientalism in fashion, were the popular style of pants. The sacrificing of the corset was only replaced by the brief popularity of the hobble skirt, which made it difficult for women to walk. Emphasis was still on the bust, but was achieved through empire waists (the waist of the dress being just under the bust).
For men, too, hemlines rose. Trousers now were ankle-length, often with cuffed legs and a sharp crease in the front. Due to the war, the trenchcoat now became popular for both men and women.
Women now had the right to vote. Cars proliferated the streets. Prohibition caused the invention of the speakeasy. The economy was booming and women were celebrating new freedom and independence. It was the Roaring Twenties - the high times before the fall in 1929.
Androgyny was now the fashionable look. The silhouette of dresses was cylindrical, with shorter hemlines and dropped waistlines. Undergarments helped women achieve a boyish figure. Bobbed hairstyles were fashionable, usually accented with a cloche hat.
In women’s and men’s fashion, simplicity became more important. Men no longer needed to wear three-piece suits. The starched collars of the previous decade gave way back to the soft collar of a few decades prior. Suit jackets were reduced to one or two buttons. Pinstripes, tweed, and flannels were popular materials and patterns for men. Trousers became wide-legged.
After the Stock Market Crash of 1929 came the Great Depression, a time of rampant poverty and unemployment. This hit Germany particularly hard, which was recovering after losing WWI. World War II would begin in 1939.
The United States and Hollywood had become the fashion center of the Western World with styles mimicked across Britain and Europe. The androgyny of the 1920s turned into femininity in the 1930s. Bias cut, man-made fabric dresses skimmed over the curves of the body. Satin evening gowns with low backs were popular. This look was paired with short hair styled into soft curls.
Men no longer wore three-piece suits outside of formal occasions. The vest was no longer a necessary component of men’s fashion. Men’s fashion became more diverse - they could wear knitted cardigans, they no longer had to wear a tie, they could wear open neck shirts and tank tops. Trousers were extremely wide-legged with turned up cuffs and sharp front creases.
The war changed fashion. Rationing of fabric created the need for different styles of dresses and skirts. Pleats and long skirts disappeared. Instead, women wore straight, knee-length styles with simple tops. Increased participation in the military and women’s corps for each segment of the military meant more women wore uniforms. After the war, Dior’s “New Look” brought back long, voluminous skirts.
Due to the war, many men wore military uniforms. Most men were cleanshaven and had short hair with the sides of the head shaved, mimicking a military style. Civilian clothes for men meant wide-legged trousers from the previous decade and double-breasted suit jackets.
After the 1940s, counter culture catches on in a much more significant way and we start seeing many more deviations in mainstream fashion - from greasers to hippies to punks to goths. Fashion becomes a very significant aspect of one’s identity as a result of mass production and globalization. Fashion subcultures increase in number over time and create a much more diverse sets of looks for each decade of fashion.
For our next two blog posts, we’ll be taking a look at Western fashion over a hundred year period, from 1850-1950. Fashion was a reflection of social and economic class and changes in the Western World. This blog post and next week’s will examine the pre-Civil War period through the turn of the century up until the rise of counter cultures in the latter half of the 20th century.
It is far beyond the scope of a simple blog post to analyze global fashions during each decade. It would be worthy of a book or a series of books. For this post, we’ll stick to the fairly homogenous concept of “Western Fashion,” which primarily encompasses Western Europe and North America and the fashion capitals of Paris, London, and New York.
The United States was experiencing an economic boom brought on by mass migration to the American West. Tensions between pro-slavery and abolitionists became more violent and more frequent. The first commercially successful sewing machine was available, which made the machine affordable enough to begin being used in homes and cut apparel-making to a fraction of the time.
During this time, male fashion was influenced by the fashion of London, while women’s fashions came from Paris. The feminine silhouette was dome- or bell-shaped, which was created with several layers of crinoline petticoats, and later in the decade, steel cage crinolines. Skirts used tiers and flounces to increase fullness. Later, when steel cage petticoats came into fashion, the skirt was smoother. Evening gowns were low-cut with short sleeves while daywear had high necklines and long sleeves. Tight corsets countered and emphasized the large skirts. Dresses were decorated with lace, ruches, and ribbons. Women styled their hair with a center part, side curls, and a bun.
Men wore matching sets of a coat, vest, and trousers. Single-breasted frock coats were snug and form-fitting, while sack coats, loose-fitting, thigh-length coats, began to gain some traction during this decade. The sack coat would later become the modern suit coat. Suits had high, stiff collars and were decorated with large bow ties. Top hats were worn by the upper classes and bowler hats were worn by the working class. Men styled their facial hair into mutton-chop sideburns and mustaches.
The Civil War in the first part of the 1860s in the United States caused a serious shift in the way of life. The result was the reunification of the North and South United States and the abolition of slavery. During this decade, the transcontinental railroad was completed, bicycles gained popularity, and the Victorian Era began.
The dome-shaped silhouette of the previous era changed mid-decade, shifting the emphasis towards the back of the dress. The tight bodices with high necks in daywear continued, but front-button shirts became more popular. Tops emphasized low, sloping shoulders and also had wide, flared sleeves, decorated with white lace collars and cuffs. Material for the wealthy and upper classes was heavy silks in solid colors.
Men’s coats were single-breasted (one row of buttons with less overlap than double-breasted, which has two rows of buttons) and semi-fitted, a compromise between the previous era’s tight frock coat and loose sack coat. These jackets reached mid-thigh. Waistcoats were collarless. Undershirts had high, starched collars paired with cravats or neckties. A style known as Dundreary or Piccadilly whiskers became fashionable for facial hair.
Race relations continued to evolve in the United States with Reconstruction and segregation. Important inventions of the era included the telephone and the lightbulb.
The silhouette for women’s fashion continued to shift towards the back of the skirt, with the bustle, ruching, ruffles, and flounces emphasizing this look. The waist moved lower, the front of the skirt became flat, and the bodice became elongated, all to emphasize this large skirt back. However, this style fell out of favor quickly in favor of a tight-fitting silhouette later in the decade. Hats were small and tilted forward on the head.
Men’s fashion was very similar to the previous decade. The tips of shirt collars were pressed into wings. Coats had wider lapels and fastened lower on the chest. Bow ties were increasingly replaced with neck ties and ascots.
The 1880s saw the first automobile, the vast expansion of the railroad, immigration, and the Wild West. The Victorian Era wouldn’t end for another twenty years.
Dresses of this era had tight bodices, narrow sleeves, and high necklines (a show of modesty characteristic of the Victorian Era). Focus remained on the back of the dress and the bustle came back in an extreme way mid-decade before falling back out of fashion quickly. The corset was still an S-shape, but was emphasized with a lower chest. Choker necklaces and collars became fashionable accessories. It should come as no surprise that the Rational Dress Society was formed in 1881 in opposition to extreme forms of women’s clothing.
Slim lounge suits were popular among men. The jackets would be worn open or partially undone to reveal their vests and neck or bow ties. A more relaxed suit appeared mid-decade and the working class adopted jackets and vests as well.
The 1890s saw a number of inventions and movements, from the Temperance Movement to the creation of motion pictures to the commercial production of automobiles. However, what more defined the decade is an economic depression. This decade would later be called the “Gay Nineties,” a misnomer as the decade saw an increase in crime and a rise in poverty. There were also many strikes and labor disputes that took place throughout the decade. The better term is the “Gilded Age,” referring to its shiny exterior hiding a bad situation.
The fashion of the early 1890s looked much like the fashion of the previous decade. However, over the course of the next ten years, the leg-o-mutton style sleeve (narrow around the lower arm, puffy around the upper arm) increased in popularity and volume. Fashions emphasized a wide shoulder and combined this with an A-line skirt (A-line meaning the skirt took the shape of a capital A). More masculine styles were also adopted, including shirt collars and ties.
Men’s styles started to become more comfortable and less restricted. Starched collars gave way to turned-down collars. Three-piece suits became more popular while frock coats fell out of favor. Creases started to appear at the front of pants. Beards began falling out of fashion among men’s facial hair stylings. Heavy mustaches or clean shaven styles were preferred.
Next week, we’ll examine fashions from 1900-1950. If you want to see one hundred years of fashion from our local region, come visit the museum for our Fabric of Bradley County exhibit from March 2019-June 2019.