THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR
(April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783)
The Patriots: The United States, France, Spain, Netherlands, Mysore, and various Native American groups
The British Empire: Great Britain, Quebec, colonial Loyalists, German auxiliaries, and various Native American groups, including the Cherokee
The War Prior to the Declaration of Independence
April 19, 1775 – July 4, 1776
Causes of the War
“We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.”– Benjamin Franklin, July 4, 1776.
The Revolutionary War was a culmination of mounting tensions between Great Britain and the American colonies. A climate of rebellion stirred in the colonies after a number of British actions stifled their autonomy. One of the first laws imposed on the colonies was the Quartering Act, requiring citizens to open their homes to soldiers. Soon after, the Stamp Tax Actwas levied on a number of documents, meaning many printed materials were taxed without the consent of the colonial legislature. A responsive cry rang out through the colonies: “no taxation without representation!”
To protect colonial rights and fight against impeding British imperialism, the secret organization, the Sons of Liberty, was formed. In the wake of substantial backlash, the Stamp Act was repealed. However, the British government created the Townshend Actin its wake to reiterate its right to impose taxes on the colonies. The Townshend Act taxed all imports into the United States.
Rifts formed between neighbors, between those who were loyal to the crown and those who vied for independence. The colonists taunted and harassed British soldiers. In one instance, this led to soldiers gunning down several civilians in what is now known as the Boston Massacre. It was fuel to the fire. The colonists dumped British-imported tea into the Boston harbor in what is now known as the Boston Tea Party. In response, the British government imposed another series of laws called the Coercive Actsin an attempt to force the submission of the colonists.
War broke out on April 19, 1775 when the British attempted to seize weapons from colonists. The colonies declared independence on July 4, 1776.
East Tennessee at this Time
When independence was declared on July 4, 1776, Tennessee was not yet a state. It was then considered part of North Carolina and Virginia and only the eastern part of the state was settled by white colonists. Statehood would not be established until 1796. The white settlers of Tennessee wrote the Watauga Compactto create a method of self-governance outside of the thirteen colonies. However, their invasion of Cherokee lands instigated conflict between the two peoples. In July of 1776, the Cherokee attacked settlements in East Tennessee, but were ultimately defeated.
Fighting amongst Neighbors: America’s First Civil War
The War until September 3, 1783
“The division among the people is much greater than I imagined and the Whigs and the Tories persecute each other, with little less than savage fury. There is nothing but murders and devastation in every quarter.”– Brigadier General Nathanael Greene, 1781.
To the Patriots, the Crown had violated their rights as Englishmen with the institution of a number of unjust laws and taxes. The Patriots were faced with a number of disadvantages against their British belligerents. At the beginning of the war, they had no national government, no national army or navy, and no government agencies or departments. However, their home-field advantage and their strong motivations helped garner many Patriot victories.
“Love to my country actuates my present conduct, however it may appear inconsistent to the world, who very seldom judge right of any man’s actions.”– Benedict Arnold, October 1780.
Although to the modern eye, the Loyalists seem anti-patriotic, they had a number of reasons for supporting the crown that would not be unusual today. For example, Yale Historian Leonard Woods Larabee states that there are eight characteristics that made these individuals lean towards conservativism and loyalty:
1) they were older and resisted radical change
2) they felt the Crown was the legitimate government and rebellion was morally wrong
3) they were further alienated by Patriot violence
4) they were on neither side and forced to loyalty with the Patriot “with us or against us” attitude
5) they had attachments to Britain (business or personal)
6) they understood independence was inevitable, but wanted to delay it
7) they feared mob rule
8) they did not believe the Patriots could win
Another enticing aspect for African Americans to join the Loyalist cause was the promise of freedom from slavery.
The new Patriot governance deemed Loyalists traitors and these people were ostracized. Their businesses were boycotted. Their land was confiscated, even that of women safeguarding the home as their husbands fought for the Crown. Mobs of Patriots were known to hang, tar and feather, and torture known Loyalists.
The Battle of King’s Mountain: Making the Volunteer State
October 7, 1780
The British were winning, overcoming the Patriots in skirmishes and battles all over the colonies. Outside the colonies, Tennessee and North Carolina “Overmountain Men”sided with the rebellion, providing safe harbor for militiamen, and refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Crown. The Patriots and the Loyalists converged on King’s Mountainon October 7, 1780. Of the one thousand Patriots who showed up for battle, over half of them were from Tennessee. The Patriots, without orders, defeated the Loyalists in a battle that raged for only one hour and five minutes. For these actions, Tennessee later became known as the “Volunteer State.”This victory, following a string of defeats, is said to have turned the tides of the Revolutionary War in the South.
Colonel Benjamin Cleveland: Where Cleveland Got Its Name
“My Brave fellows, we have beat the Tories, and we can beat them again. They are all cowardly. If they had the spirit of men, they would join with their fellow citizens in supporting the independence of their country.” – Col. Benjamin Cleveland, October 7, 1780
Colonel Benjamin Cleveland, originally part of the North Carolina militia, was one of nine Patriot leaders in the Battle of King’s Mountain. According to legend, Colonel Benjamin Cleveland mustered up some 225 men from Wilkes County to battle the British army at King’s Mountain and delivered a rousing speech to the men. These men, as part of a ragtag battalion, were told to only take orders from themselves, not from any leader. Cleveland went on to participate in many more battles and skirmishes across the colonies, earning respect and admiration. Cleveland, Tennessee was named for him.
The Battle of Boyd’s Creek
Two months and six days after the Battle of King’s Mountain was the Battle of Boyd’s Creek, the only battle to take place within the confines of present-day Tennessee. This battle was fought against the Cherokee, who were, at the time, allies of the British. It is said that Nancy Ward had a hand in warning the white settlers of an attack orchestrated by the Cherokee leader Dragging Canoe. She used her status as a Beloved Woman to free settler prisoners and alerted them to the upcoming attack. The Patriots fought back the Cherokee and awaited reinforcements.
The People of East Tennessee
Revolutionary War Veterans who lived in Bradley, Polk counties
Walter Billingsley b. 1761-d. 1838
Joseph Campbell Jr. b. 1762-d. 1841
William Dodd b. 1760-d. 1844
Morton (Moulton) Gray d. 1857
James Hamilton b. 1757-d. 1844
Charles Lain d. 1843
Joseph Lain (Lane) b. 1756-d. 1846
John Latta b. 1768
Joseph Lusk b. 1753-d. 1839
William McAllister (McCallister) b. 1762
Robert McCormick b. 1761
Samuel Carter b. 1753-d. 1847
William Longley (Longly) b. 1761-d. 1841
William May b. 1754-d. 1844
George Petit (Pettitt) b. 1760-d. 1844
Thomas Towns (Townes) b. 1751-d. 1848
Samuel Walker b. 1760
(Nancy [Nanye-hi] Ward b. about 1735-d. 1824)
John White b. 1753-d. 1858
Col. Thomas Whiteside b. 1749-d. 1830
Beloved Woman: Nancy Ward (Nanye-hi)
“You know that women are always looked upon as nothing; but we are your mothers; you are our sons. Our cry is all for peace; let it continue. This peace must last forever. Let your women’s sons be ours. Let our sons be yours. Let your women hear our words.” – Nancy Ward (Nanye-hi), July 1781
One of the most notable figures of this time was Nanye-hi (also known as Nancy Ward), a Cherokee “Beloved Woman” who served on the War and Women’s Councils of the Cherokee. Although many Cherokee were allies to the British, Nanye-hi was an advocate for peace. In 1776, the British asked Cherokee to kill the Overmountain Men in the Watauga, Holston, and Carter Valleys. Nanye-hi freed prisoners so that the settlers would be warned of the attack. In July of 1781, Nanye-hi led peace treaty negotiations between the Cherokee and the settlers.
The End of the War
September 3, 1783
The French Navy, aiding the Patriots, defeated the British fleet and cut off their escape. George Washington then led his army to Yorktown to join the French. Together they besieged the British armies. General Cornwallis of the British Army surrendered to the Patriots. After this surrender, public support in Britain for the war waned. The Tory (Loyalist) government was replaced by Whigs (pro-Patriot). Eventually, the Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783 and Britain recognized the sovereignty of the United States.